Review Article

Zn2+ Ions-Immune Virucidal activities for children and adults with preventions against 2019-nCoV and COVID-19 infection

Tsuneo Ishida*

Published: 28 July, 2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 006-014

Zinc induced pediatric preventing respiratory 2019-nCoV is required that supplementation with zinc gluconate 20 mg in Zn deficient children resulted in a nearly twofold reduction of acute lower respiratory infections as well as the time to recovery. Zinc supplementation in children is associated with a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of pneumonia. Preventing 2019-nCoV pneumonia is required that zinc supplementation alone (10 to 20 mg) for more than 3 months significantly reduces in the rate of pneumonia. zinc pediatric intake may be required to be effective range 10~20 mg/d for 2019-CoV prevention, 10~30 mg/d for reduction of COVID-19 bronchitis, and 20~30 mg/d for recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia, in which Zn2+ could bind with viral surface proteins by Zn2+ions-centered tetrahedrally coordination pattern.

On the other hand, for aults, the zinc-homeostatic immune concentration may provide a protective role against the COVID-19 pandemic, likely by improving the host’s resistance against viral infection. 50 mg of zinc per day might provide an additional shield against the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly by increasing the host resistance to viral infection to minimize the burden of the disease. In order to prevent that an outbreak of respiratory sickness caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a serious public threat and disrupted many lives,assessing the efficacy of FDA-approved Zn-ejector drugs such as disulfiram combined with interferon to treat COVID-19 infected patients has been proposed. The key strategies for preventing lung damages include avoiding direct lung infection, altering host-virus interactions, promoting immune responses, diluting virus concentrations in lung tissues by promoting viral migration to the rest of the body, maintaining waste removal balance, protecting heart function and renal function, avoiding other infections, reducing allergic reactions and anti-inflammatory. The interactions had been found on the binding specificity by Zn2+ ions-centered tetrahedral geometric coordination of the inhibitors against 3C and 3C-like proteases. In addition, transient zinc chelation TPEN and EPDTC have been noted as preventing virus replication.

Zinc-induced ROS production in COVID-19 respiratory ailment and pneumonia occurs both in children and adults. In children.

ROS production in zinc (Ⅱ)-immune pediatric patient with COVID-19 bronchitis and pneumonia cannot be elucidated yet. In adults, zinc induced ROS generation in pulmonary COVID-19 infected cells is that alterations of ROS-producing and scavenging pathways that are caused by respiratory viral infections are implicated in inflammation, lung epithelial disruption, and tissue damage, and, in some cases, even pulmonary fibrosis. The involvement of oxidative stress in cell deaths caused during RNA virus infection and ROS production is correlated with host cell death.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcavi.1001006 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Zinc ions immunity; Pediatric zinc intake; Pediatric and adult preventions for 2019-nCoV; COVID-19 bronchitis and pneumonia; Zn2+ ions-coordination pattern


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